bio 302 final term solved papers, Molecular Biology
The term biological science was 1st utilized in 1945 by William Astbury WHO was concerning the study of the chemical and organic structure of biological macromolecules. By that point, biochemists had discovered several elementary animate thing chemical reactions.
The importance of specific reactions and of supermolecule structure in process the various properties of cells was
also appreciated. However, the event of biological science had to expect the understanding that the foremost advantageous approaches would be created by learning learning systems.
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like bacteria and bacteriophages that yield data concerning the fundamental biological processes a lot of readily than animal cells. In fact, the religion within the basic uniformity of life processes was associate degree important think about rising of biological science.
That is, it had been believed that elementary biological principles that govern the activity of straightforward organisms, like microorganism and viruses, must apply to a lot of advanced cells; solely the main points ought to vary. This religion has been amply justified by experimental results.
The roots of biological science were established in 1953 once associate degree English person, Francis Crick and a young yankee, James Dewey Watson functioning at Medical analysis Council Unit, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, projected a double coiling model for the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule that was standard.
Because the chemical bearer of genetic informations of bound microorganisms (bacteria, bacteriophages, etc.) because of pioneer discoveries created by Grifith (1928), Avery, physiologist and McCarthy (1944) and Hershey and Chase (1952).
This discovery was followed by a radical search of prevalence of DNA because the genetic material in alternative microorganisms, plants and animals and additionally by investigations of the molecular and atomic nature of various reactions of living cells.
From of these studies has emerged the conclusion that the fundamental chemical organization and also the metabolic processes of all living things area unit remarkably similar despite their morphological diversity which the physical and chemical principles governing living systems area unit like those governing non-living systems.