- Semester: 2nd
- Course: B.Sc. Hons agriculture
- Assignment topic:
- Nitrogenous Fertilizer.
Nitrogen is a capital plant food that is often the limiting agent in crop production in Oregon. Nature take measures in preparation for available nitrogen for plant growth in the soil from the organic phenomenon of rotting plant and animal matter. The atmosphere is 80 percent nitrogen, but in this having characteristics of a gas form, it cannot be used at once by plants. Some nitrogen is converted from the air to a disposal form by the bacteria begin in the nodules on the roots of legumes. Certain soil organisms also have the capability to fix nitrogen for use by plants. For many centuries the use of legumes and barnyard plant material used to fertilize land especially animal excreta usually with litter material were the only known methods of increasing or maintaining the nitrogen providing something in the soil. These methods are at rest good and should be continued. Commercial fertilizer change nitrogen in a readily available form, however, can be used with profit on better crops.
Nitrogen fertilizer does the coming after in the same direction :
Stimulates growth of the nonlegumes.
Increases the active organic-matter amount of the soil by speeding up the decomposition of blooey roots. Provides available nitrogen for both grass and legume advancement when the soil temperature is too low or the soil is too foggy for natural nitrification processes.
Helps get new legume seedings birth before they are able to take nitrogen from the air Provides available nitrogen for both grasses and legumes back the soil is worn out or eroded to the point that natural nitrification processes will not take a job in an organization normally. Aids decomposition of indication and other crop residues.
Increases the protein content of the grain, corn, grass, and other nonlegume forage plants. Helps the plant, through increased growth caused by nitrogen, to the adjust use of other plant foods at present, in the soil or applied as commercial fertilizer.
The use of commercial nitrogen is only part of an acceptable soil management program. The increased yield will draw o a considerable degree on other mineral plant foods increasing the chances for profit complete the use of other materials.
When there is plenty of nitrogen in the soil, more moisture can be advance for increased crop production. This latter point is considered to the irrigation farmer.
There are many types.
Bright ammonium sulfate contains 21.2 percent nitrogen and 27.5 percent sulfur. The ammonium sulfate sold for fertilizer has a secured by written agreement analysis of 20 to 21 percent nitrogen in the ammonia (NH3) appearance. It is a fine crystalline salt convert in color from white through different shades of gray. All of the nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, consistently called sulfate of ammonia, is in the ammonia arrangement. Ammonia nitrogen does not the process of leaching out of the soil as readily as nitrate nitrogen. For this argumentation, it is a very good source of nitrogen, especially in the irrigated sections of the way something is with respect to its main attributes.
Tests with ammonium sulfate in the Columbia Basin wheat area have shown that it is also a good facility where something is available of nitrogen in that area. For many centuries it was the attention that all field crops used nitrate to the nitrogen involved and that all ammonia nitrogen had to be converted into the nitrate form by soil organisms in the front it could be employed in accomplishing something by the plants.
Research in the last few the time all along which someone’s life continues has shown that abounding plants use anybody nitrogen in the ammonia form.
Young plants, seedlings, consume more ammonia nitrogen than older plants; therefore, ammonium sulfate and other ammonia fertilizers are especially acceptable at seeding time. Ammonium sulfate is an acid balanced fertilizer and consequently increases the acidity of the soil. This is a clear disadvantage in western Oregon where the soils are at present acid. Much research has been done on this accountable and the results of this work show that the continuous use of ammonium sulfate without lime in humid regions may result in the bearing of compounds in the soil that are deadly to crops. On alkaline soils of eastern Oregon, the acid acknowledgment of ammonium sulfate is desirable. In western Oregon where the soils are already acid, the acidity produced by 100 pounds of ammonium sulfate makes it, be neutralized by an application of 100 pounds of high-test lime. In other words, if 400 pounds of ammonium sulfate is applied without missing a year, one-ton high-test lime should be applied every five years to close the soil at the same pH level. If the soil is already acid, additional lime should be applied to add the pH to between 6.0 and 6.5 (lime requirement of less than one ton per acre with the red color test) in the adjustment to obtain the maximum production of the better crops.
Ammonium nitrate disposed of to a purchaser as fertilizer contains 32.5 to 33.5 percent nitrogen. One-divided of the nitrogen, in the area 16.5 percent, is in the ammonia (NH3) form and the other divided is in the nitrate (NO3) form. The ammonium nitrate on the market now is microscopic and varies in color from white to pink. Pure ammonium nitrate is a white, crystalline material that act of drawing moisture in a careful manner and cakes so badly that it cannot be applied with a regular fertilizer drill. To overcome this action, manufacturers have developed graining processes. Most commercial ammonium nitrate is a white granular carnal. It is readily soluble in water and can be spread by ideas through the sprinkler irrigation system. The Tennessee Valley Authority manufactures ammonium nitrate that has a granular arrangement and is pink in color. The pink color is collectible to petrolatum and clay dusting on the characteristic particles. This blend is not as water-soluble as the other brands of ammonium nitrate busy in Oregon and will cause some, bad news when spread complete the sprinkler irrigation system because of the waxy material continually clogs the sprinklers. Ammonium nitrate does not cake if it is abundant in a dry place and if the bags are not broken. It is easy to spread through an accepted fertilizer spreader. However, when the bags are opened the material will take fog from the and