vu all current final term past papers

vu all current final term past papers

Data Compression: compression Audio and Videos
The most usually used standards for encryption and compression audio and video were developed by the
Motion Picture specialists cluster (MPEG) beneath the leadership of ISO. In turn, these standards themselves
are known as MPEG.

MPEG encompasses a range of standards for various applications. for instance, the stress for top
definition tv (HDTV) broadcast area unit distinct from those for video conferencing, within which the
broadcast signal should notice its over a range of communication ways which will have restricted capabilities.
Both of those applications take issue from that of storing video in such a fashion that sections may be replayed
or passed over.

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The techniques utilized by MPEG area unit well on the far side the scope of this text, however normally, video
compression techniques area unit supported video being made as a sequence of images in a lot of constant
way that motion footage area unit recorded on film.

To compress such sequences, just some of the photographs, called I-frames, area unit encoded in their completeness. the photographs between the I-frames area unit encoded victimization relative encoding techniques. That is, instead of encrypt the complete image, solely its distinctions from the previous image are recorded. The I-frames themselves area unit sometimes compressed with techniques just like JPEG.

The known system for compression audio is MP3, that was developed among the MPEG standards. In fact, the word form MP3 is brief for MPEG layer three. Among alternative compression techniques, MP3 takes advantage of the properties of the human ear, removing those details that the human ear can- not understand. One such property, known as temporal masking, is that for a brief amount once a loud sound, the human ear cannot discover softer sounds that might preferably be audible .

Another, known as frequency masking, is that a sound at one frequency tends to mask softer sounds at close frequencies. By taking advantage of such characteristics, MP3 may be wont to get vital compression of audio whereas maintaining close to CD quality sound.

Using MPEG and MP3 compression techniques, video cameras area unit ready to record the maximum amount as associate hour’s worth of video among 128MB of storage, and moveable music players will store as several as four hundred in style songs in an exceedingly single GB. But, in distinction to the goals of compression in alternative settings, the goal of compression audio and video isn’t essentially to avoid wasting cupboard space.

Even as necessary is that the goal of getting encodings that enable data to be transmitted over today’s communication systems quick enough to produce timely presentation. If every video frame needed a MB of storage and therefore the frames had to be transmitted over a communication path that might relay only 1 K per second, there would be no hope of roaring video conferencing.

Thus, additionally to the standard of replica allowed, audio and video compression systems area unit typically judged by the transmission speeds needed for timely digital communication. These speeds are usually measured in bits per second (bps). Common units embody Kbps (kilo-bps, capable one thousand bps), Mbps (mega-bps, capable 1,000,000 bps), and Gbps (giga-bps, capable one billion bps). Using MPEG techniques, video displays may be with success relayed over communication ways that provide transfer rates of forty Mbps. MP3 recordings usually need transfer rates of no over sixty four Kbps.

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